Golfers elbow accounts for 0.4% of the population. It usually occurs between the age group of 40- 60 and is much less common than tennis elbow. Women and men are equally affected.


Golfers elbow also known as medial epicondylalgia is an overuse injury causing pain on the inside of the elbow joint.

Risk factors in athletes include

  • Training errors which includes
  • Improper technique, equipment,
  • Functional risk factors include lack of strength, endurance, or flexibility.
  • Occupation-related risk factors include heavy physical work, excessive repetition, smoking, the presence of comorbidities, and high psychosocial work demands.
  • Aching pain on the inner side (medial) of the elbow
  • Sometimes radiating pain from the epicondyle down into the forearm and wrist
  • Often insidious in nature
  • Pain increases with forearm motion, gripping or throwing.
  • In athletes, this includes overhead throwing, forearm tennis stroke, or golf swing.
  • Pain resolves with rest or discontinuation of activity.
  • Elbow stiffness, weakness, numbness, or tingling are most common in an ulnar nerve distribution.
  • More chronic presentations may report weakness with grip strength.


  • This is mostly managed non-surgically.
  • Initially, cessation of aggravating activities or decreasing their volume, frequency, or intensity is advised.
  • Icing to reduce inflammation and pain in and around the joint during acute stage and post activity.
  • Tightness in the extensor muscles causes an overload on the flexors while moving the wrist. So the release of the extensor muscles using dry needling or
  • myofascial release helps to reduce pain while movement.
  • Isometric exercises provide an analgesic effect for around 40 minutes post exercises. Later concentric and eccentric exercises can be added.
  • If conservative management of 6 months fails, steroid injections are given.
  • To prevent a recurrence, strengthening of shoulder girdle muscles and correcting the movement patterns can be added.

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